The Emerging Transnational ‘Retirement Industry’ in Southeast Asia Biao Xiang & Mika Toyota


This article aims to explain how a transnational “retirement industry” in Southeast Asia has emerged recently as a result of interplays between various national and transnational forces, particularly in the domain of elderly care. “Retirement industry” refers to business operations related to the relocation of foreign retirees, primarily Japanese pensioners, who seek affordable social care and alternative retirement life.

Xiang, B. & Toyota, M. (2012) ‘The Emerging Transnational ‘Retirement Industry’ in Southeast Asia’, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 32(11): 708-719