Kazakhstan, a country with relatively strong economic growth, significant natural resources and low population density, shares borders with countries of low economic growth, high poverty and unemployment. The lack of a coherent strategy for labour migration and a large informal sector have contributed towards a situation where large numbers of low-skilled migrants are working in breach of Kazakhstan’s minimum labour standards. There is also evidence of significant incidences of unfree*or forced*labour. This paper considers the living and working conditions of Central Asian migrants in Kazakhstan and the applicability of the trafficking framework to their situation.
Anderson, B. and Hancilová, B. (2011) ‘Migrant Labour in Kazakhstan: A Cause for Concern?’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 37(3): 467-483