Outside and In: Legal Entitlements to Health Care and Education for Migrants with Irregular Status in Europe Sarah Spencer, Vanessa Hughes


This report sets out for the 28 Member States of the European Union (EU28) the legal entitlements for migrants with irregular status to access health care services and, for children, education. The data is also set out for each country individually in a separate Annex. The report is part of a broader study exploring the official rationales for granting access to services at national, regional and municipal level.

We use the term ‘migrants with irregular status’ and ‘irregular migrants’ to denote adults who have remained in a country or entered without authorisation. We use ‘entitlements’ rather than rights as referring to a legal entitlement to a specific service rather than to the broader but sometimes less specific fundamental rights to health care and education in international human rights standards.

The report covers entitlements in law not the many barriers that can nevertheless impede an individual securing access to the service. We note, however, where a requirement to cover the full cost of health care, or a requirement on service providers to pass on the details of service users to the immigration authorities, in effect nullifies the entitlement to that service.

Report Annex

Executive Summary


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